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Although there are many important philological and philosophical questions surrounding Parmenides’ poem, ) of Ascea, Italy. E., and thus Parmenides was of Ionian stock (1.167.3). The linear order of the three main extant sections is certain, and the assignment of particular fragments (and internal lines) to each section is generally well-supported.

Herodotus reports that members of the Phocaean tribe established this settlement ca. Parmenides’ father, a wealthy aristocrat named Pyres, was probably one of the original colonizers (Coxon exactly Parmenides was born is far more controversial. Neither account is clearly convincing in-itself, and scholars are divided on their reliability and veracity. However, it must be admitted that confidence in the connectedness, completeness, and internal ordering of the fragments in each section decreases significantly as one proceeds through the poem linearly: .

This is further confirmed given the two geographical locations explicitly named (the “House of Night” and the “Gates of Night and Day”), both of which are traditionally located in the underworld by Homer and Hesiod.

Thus, the chariot journey is ultimately circular, ending where it began (compare C2/DK5).

Many have thought the chariot journey involved an ascent into the heavens/light as a metaphor for achieving enlightenment/knowledge and for escaping from darkness/ignorance.

However, it would seem that any chariot journey directed by sun goddesses is best understood as following the ecliptic path of the sun and Day (also, that of the moon and Night).

Parmenides of Elea was a Presocratic Greek philosopher.

As the first philosopher to inquire into the nature of existence itself, he is incontrovertibly credited as the “Father of Metaphysics.” As the first to employ deductive, arguments to justify his claims, he competes with Aristotle for the title “Father of Logic.” He is also commonly thought of as the founder of the “Eleatic School” of thought—a philosophical label ascribed to Presocratics who purportedly argued that reality is in some sense a unified and unchanging singular entity. Some have taken Plato’s precise mention of Parmenides’ age as indicative of veracity.

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However, discerning exactly what that thesis is supposed to be has proven a vexing, perennial problem since ancient times. Several sources attest that he established a set of laws for Elea, which remained in effect and sworn to for centuries after his death (Coxon 16, 116). The result is a rather fragmentary text, constituted by approximately 154 dactylic-hexameter lines (some are only partial lines, or even only one word).

Even Plato expressed reservations as to whether Parmenides’ “noble depth” could be understood at all—and Plato possessed Parmenides’ entire poem, a blessing denied to modern scholars. This reconstructed arrangement has then been traditionally divided into three distinct parts: an introductory section known as the ).

The final section ( is supposed to be representative of the mistaken “opinions of mortals,” and thus is to be rejected on some level. Whenever Parmenides was born, he must have remained a lifelong citizen and permanent resident of Elea—even if he traveled late in life, as Plato’s accounts in suggest. pedestal discovered in Elea is dedicated to him, with an inscription crediting him not only as a “natural philosopher,” but as a member (“priest”) of a local healing cult/school (Coxon 41; . Thus, he likely contributed to the healing arts as a patron and/or practitioner. Ultimately, however, when and where Parmenides died is entirely unattested.

All three sections of the poem seem particularly contrived to yield a cohesive and unified thesis. This is first indicated by the evident notoriety he gained for contributions to his community. Finally, if Parmenides really was a personal teacher of Zeno of Elea (490-430 B. E)., Parmenides must have been present in Elea well into the mid-fourth century B. Ancient tradition holds that Parmenides produced only one written work, which was supposedly entitled ) evidence.

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